Halaman:Aspek-aspek arkeologi Indonesia No. 7.pdf/40

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in another place: Karnataka) Here again we see no Chinese on the list. Apparently there were no Chinese settlers yet, though there may have been a few Chinese traders. Krom even thought that the trade was in the hands of Chinese (Krom, 1931 : 226) .

The presence of numerous Chinese ceramic sherds in a later period would, on the other hand, indicate the existence of a Chinese colony; called ” Kota Cina ” or "pecinaan".

2.The problem of Java and Sriwijaya.

Having concluded that there were indeed ancient ports on the north coast of Central Java, we will now discuss the relations between Java and Sriwijaya in light of the ceramic sherds on the north coast of Central Java, The general assumption is that Sriwijaya was a ”maritimev kingdom and Java an ”agrarian” one. This view we cannot share. For how could a maritime kingdom live without a fertile hinterland or how could an ”agrarian” kingdom such as the Sailendras' in Central Java live and be wealthy and build magnificent monuments without the revenues of a seaborne trade? It is not from rice alone that they could build up their wealth.

The sources that reveal the past are inscriptions, most of which were found in the same part of Central Java where we find temples and statues. Yet without the study of ceramics our knowledge based on these sources may not be complete. For it is these sherds which may supplement the data which are still lacking on the political and economic life of Central Java.

There is a very important historical problem which has intrigued many scholars: it is the sudden transfer of the centre of power from Central- to East Java. But before going into details, we must give a brief account of the political development in Central Java between 732 and 93041)

There were two dynasties or two branches of the same royal family who ruled during these two centuries. The family started with King Sanjaya, follower of a ” Hindu ” cult who issued an inscription in 732 when he erected a lingga on Mount Wukir. A few decades later the Sailendra inscriptions began and continued until about 830. The Sailendras in contrast with Sanjaya and his successors, were Buddhists, and their name is associated with the Borobudur and other magnificent sanctuaries. The ” Hindu Sanjayas” though in a lesser position of power, still cooperated with them in their temple building.

Pramodhawarddhani of the Sailendra dynasty married in about 830 a prince of the Sanjaya family, Rakai Pikatan. This was the end of the Sailendra rule in Java. Her younger brother Balaputra was expelled from Java after he led a war against her and her husband. He became king of Suwarnadwipa