Halaman:Aspek-aspek arkeologi Indonesia No. 7.pdf/35

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Butan, Banggawi. Kunir, Galiyao and Salaya, all of which can be identified as states in South Sulawesi under Majapahit's suzerainty. This means that the princes were expected to pay homage, bringing produce of the country to Majapahit at least once a year. This could explain the occurence of names and titles, borrowed from Hinduism, though the people were neither Hindus nor Buddhists. For example, the god was called Dewata, the kings were called Batara. The first man, descending from heaven was Batara Guru who married the woman coming from the underworld, named ”We Nyuli Timo ” (Noorduyn, 1955; 48). The Datu of Luwu was named Dewaraja or Rajadewa (p.70). They knew a creator and several other gods. The same is the case with Toraja tribes in Sulawesi.22) Those people who were neither Hindus nor Buddhists were not mere ”animists” but had an established pantheon, the gods of which they prayed to or whose names they called as witnesses. The kings embraced Islamic religion rather late compared with other parts of the Archipelago, only in the beginning of the 17th century. Until that time they still cremated their kings, which could also have been under the influence of Hindus or Buddhists and perhaps even Buddhist Chinese. The presence of so many ceramics and fragments clearly indicates the existence of a thriving trade with China. As Sulawesi was on the way between the spice islands (Moluccas) and the sandalwood islands and China, it would be natural to expect a thriving seaport at South Sulawesi. Though the people knew no Sanscrit, they had the advantage of possessing their own written characters with which they could keep their accounts and write their diaries, chronicles etc. Perhaps principalities of South Sulawesi were also mentioned in the Chinese annals, but if so, the transcriptions of their names remain to be investigated.


Though these two places do not form one area, we have nevertheless taken them together in connection with the location of the ancient 7th century Sriwijaya. It was G. Coedès23) who identified Palembang as the ancient site of 7th century Sriwijaya (Cheli- fo-che), where most of the inscriptions are found. Though many scholars have accepted his view Krom24), De Casparis. Wolters) there are still a few who seek the ancient site in an other place. Moens25), referring to I-tsing's information that in the city of Sriwijaya a man was casting no shadow at noon, located it in Muara Takus near the equator (0.20N.W.) which would fit the description. Roland Braddell26) located Sriwijaya on the Malay Peninsula, while M.C. Chand 27) locates it in Southern Thailand, in the Chaiya area.

In 1974 a team composed of Indonesian archaeologists and three archaeologists from the University of Pennsylvania, including B. Bronson,