Halaman:Aspek-aspek arkeologi Indonesia No. 7.pdf/30

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ously an urn cemetery. Van Heekeren dates this graveyard back to the second or third century A.D. (Van Heekeren 1958)7).

There were also urn burials in Sumatra, in Lesung Batu, Tebing Tinggi (S.W. Sumatra) The urn contained human bones, and in one of them was an empty brown- red beautifully polished jar. The decoration o f the jar consisted of meanders and fishbone motifs identical with motifs on bronze objects.

In Sulawesi there were several places of urn burials. In Central Sulawesi people were buried in stone urns, called ”warugas”. The dead were provided with pottery, and these warugas were found near stone statues. There was even a tall (111 cm high) earthenware urn. Here we are dealing with secondary burials. The remains of a person were first buried or kept in some place and afterwards put in an urn.

Van Heekeren also refers to a report by Schroder of 1912, concerning three earthenware urns found in the south western part of the island of Salayar. The contents were broken human bones and ornaments; beads of semi- precious stones, a ring, three bracelets, an ear- ring of bronze, and a fey golden leaves (only in one of the three urns).

Most important was the find of an urn cemetery on the island of Sumba. The urns were all globular jars, some with straight necks, and mouths of varying width, others with necks curving outwards to a lesser or greater degree. The covers were sherds, broken pots, inverted jars or bottles. The flasks were highly polished red or darkbrown with long slender necks. As the jars were decorated with motifs usually found on bronzes, Van Heekeren dates this cemetery to the bronze-iron age, though there are quadrangular stone adzes among the funeral gifts. The find of a spindle indicated the existence of weaving. There were many skulls among the human remains, which was proof of a secondary burial.

In Gilimanuk (Bali), Soejono (1977) excavated graves, filled with skeletons. Among the funeral gifts were bronze axes, ornaments and earthenware pots. The excavations were conducted several times throughout a period of more than ten years.


Local pottery was still produced and used in the period when there were already contacts with India and China and foreign ceramics were already finding their way in Indonesia, though still sporadically. On reliefs of 9th century temples in Central Java, for example on the Borobudur and Prambanan, local pottery is seen to be used as water containers. A famous scene on the Borobudur is women who are fetching water from a pond.